It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created.
- Atom Economy
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into the final product.
- Less Hazardous Chemical Syntheses
Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate substances that possess little or no toxicity to human health and the environment.
- Designing Safer Chemicals
Chemical products should be designed to affect their desired function while minimizing their toxicity.
- Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries
The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents, separation agents, etc.) should be made unnecessary wherever possible and innocuous when used.
- Design for Energy Efficiency
Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, synthetic methods should be conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.
- Use of Renewable Feedstocks
A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and economically practicable.
- Reduce Derivatives
Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/ deprotection, temporary modification of physical/chemical processes) should be minimized or avoided if possible, because such steps require additional reagents and can generate waste.
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.
- Design for Degradation
Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
- Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention
Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.
- Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention
Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimize the potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
The planet’s immunological system will respond and eliminate humans by not sustaining them in the dramatically altered environment that they created.
I was so glad to watch speeches from both Professor Susumu Kitagawa and Professor Ahmed Zewail
Here are some samples:
1. Nano-photocatalytic Materials: Possibilities and Challenges
2. On Being Green: Can Flow Chemistry Help?
3. Nano-photocatalytic Materials: Possibilities and Challenges
1. Clarity of presentation
2. Reproducibility of data
3. Testing of assumptions
4. Search for additional variables
5. Acknowledgement of both ideas and data used in the work buy generated by others
Ahmed Zewail (via beningtirta)
W. F. van Gunsteren, et al. (2008)
1. A poor or incomplete description of the work, for example, publishing pretty pictures instead of evidence of causality.
2. Failure to perform obvious, cheap tests that could confirm or repudiate a model, theory, or measurement, for example, to detect additional variables or to show under which conditions a model or theory breaks down.
3. Insufficient connection between data and hypothesis or message, leading to lack of support for the message or over-interpretation of data, for example, rendering the story more sensational or attractive.
4. The reporting of only favorable results, for example, reporting positive or desired (hoped for) results while omitting those that are negative.
5. Neglect of errors found after publication.
7. The direct fabrication or falsification of data.